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These are areas where the virus is present in monkeys and poses a potential risk to humans, as defined by the World Health Organization. Some of these countries require travellers to obtain a yellow fever certificate as a condition of entry into their country. Many of these and other countries will ask you for a certificate if you enter from a country infected with yellow fever. Your travel agent should let you know if you need a certificate when you book your holiday or flight. 1. How do I know if I need a yellow fever vaccine for my trip? Yellow fever is a disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The most common symptoms are fever, muscle aches with severe back pain, headache, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Yellow fever is present in various parts of South America and Africa. Travellers to these areas are advised to be vaccinated against yellow fever before travelling to these areas. However, some countries require proof of vaccination for entry or proof if you are entering from a country with the virus.

Learn more below: You may need to visit or consult your PNP if you belong to a high-risk group and are receiving yellow fever vaccine. Please read our “What is the yellow fever vaccine?” section above for more information. If a certificate is not required to enter a country, it does not necessarily mean that there is no risk of disease, and yellow fever vaccine may still be recommended. Further information can be found on the respective country pages. Health authorities recommend the use of mosquito repellents such as repellents and mosquito nets, as well as vaccination to prevent yellow fever and other mosquito-borne diseases. Countries and territories at risk of yellow fever virus transmission include: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Côte d`Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo and Uganda. Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad only) and Venezuela. Note: When a case of yellow fever is reported in a country, that country is considered by the Government of India as a country at risk of yellow fever virus transmission and is listed above. Visit a yellow fever vaccination clinic. Ask the clinic doctor to confirm if yellow fever vaccination is necessary and/or recommended for your destination. Plan to receive the vaccine at least 10 days before your trip, as proof of vaccination is only valid for 10 days after receiving the vaccine, the time it takes to develop immunity to the yellow fever virus. Check your destination for yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations.

Those recommendations should be used in conjunction with an individual risk assessment, taking into account not only the country of destination, but also the detailed itinerary, including specific cities, types of accommodation, season and style of travel, as well as particular health conditions such as pregnancy. Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne virus found in parts of Africa and South America. Unlike many other mosquito-borne infections, vaccines are available to protect against yellow fever. See below for more information on the virus: In recent years, outbreaks of yellow fever have been reported in many countries, including Kenya, Nigeria, Peru and Brazil. WHO estimates that about 170,000 people are infected with the virus each year, resulting in about 60,000 deaths. The yellow fever vaccine is an injectable vaccine that prevents yellow fever. The vaccine is recommended for many countries in Africa and South America, it is required for entry into some countries. Some countries may not follow this list to the letter, including some other countries in their official entry requirements (or exclude them as infected).

Please see the latest information from the World Health Organization on each country`s yellow fever needs here. Country requirements are subject to change at any time. Temporary country requirements and WHO recommendations for specific events are published on the travel advice page of the WHO website. However, it is important for travelers to ensure that they are aware of the requirements of the country they are traveling to by checking with the appropriate consulate or embassy. Yellow fever is thought to be up to 3,000 years old. The first recorded eruption took place in 1648 on the Yucatan Peninsula. Since then, other major outbreaks have occurred in Philadelphia, New Orleans, Cuba and Panama. More than 40 countries have at least some risk of yellow fever transmission, including popular destinations such as Peru, Brazil and Nigeria.

See below for more information: A single dose of yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong protection. However, some countries still require proof of vaccination in the last 10 years. Contact a member of the Passport Health team if you are unsure whether you need to be revaccinated. There is no medication or treatment for yellow fever. Most treatments involve pain relief and treatment of symptoms such as headache and fever. Severe cases require hospitalization for close observation and care. Between 30 and 60% of people with severe symptoms die from the virus. The yellow fever virus is a disease transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Although it is not a common virus in the United States, those traveling outside the country should be aware of the disease and whether they should be vaccinated against it. “Yellow fever vaccination is generally not recommended in areas with low potential for yellow fever virus exposure (yellow fever cases have never been reported in humans and there is evidence that there has been only a low level of yellow fever virus transmission in the past),” said WHO in an international travel and health document.